Learning Affinity Functions for Image Segmentation: Combining Patch-Based and Gradient-Based Approaches
This paper studies the problem of combining region and boundary cues for natural image segmentation. We employ a large database of manually segmented images in order to learn an optimal affinity function between pairs of pixels. These pairwise affinities can then be used to cluster the pixels into visually coherent groups. Region cues are computed as the similarity in brightness, color, and texture between image patches. Boundary cues are incorporated by looking for the presence of an "intervening contour", a large gradient along a straight line connecting two pixels. We first use the dataset of human segmentations to individually optimize parameters of the patch and gradient features for brightness, color, and texture cues. We then quantitatively measure the power of different feature combinations by computing the precision and recall of classifiers trained using those features. The mutual information between the output of the classifiers and the same-segment indicator function provides an alternative evaluation technique that yields identical conclusions. As expected, the best classifier makes use of brightness, color, and texture features, in both patch and gradient forms. We find that for brightness, the gradient cue outperforms the patch similarity. In contrast, using color patch similarity yields better results than using color gradients. Texture is the most powerful of the three channels, with both patches and gradients carrying significant independent information. Interestingly, the proximity of the two pixels does not add any information beyond that provided by the similarity cues. We also find that the convexity assumptions made by the intervening contour approach are supported by the ecological statistics of the dataset.
Text ReferenceCharless Fowlkes, David Martin, and Jitendra Malik. Learning affinity functions for image segmentation: combining patch-based and gradient-based approaches. In CVPR, II: 54–61. 2003.
AUTHOR = "Fowlkes, Charless and Martin, David and Malik, Jitendra",
TITLE = "Learning Affinity Functions for Image Segmentation: Combining Patch-Based and Gradient-Based Approaches",
BOOKTITLE = "CVPR",
YEAR = "2003",
PAGES = "II: 54-61",
TAG = "grouping,ecological_statistics"