Efficiently Scaling up Crowdsourced Video Annotation - A Set of Best Practices for High Quality, Economical Video Labeling
We present an extensive three year study on economically annotating video with crowdsourced marketplaces. Our public framework has annotated thousands of real world videos, including massive data sets unprecedented for their size, complexity, and cost. To accomplish this, we designed a state-of-the-art video annotation user interface and demonstrate that, despite common intuition, many contemporary interfaces are sub-optimal. We present several user studies that evaluate different aspects of our system and demonstrate that minimizing the cognitive load of the user is crucial when designing an annotation platform. We then deploy this interface on Amazon Mechanical Turk and discover expert and talented workers who are capable of annotating difficult videos with dense and closely cropped labels. We argue that video annotation requires specialized skill; most workers are poor annotators, mandating robust quality control protocols. We show that traditional crowdsourced micro-tasks are not suitable for video annotation and instead demonstrate that deploying time-consuming macro-tasks on MTurk is effective. Finally, we show that by extracting pixel-based features from manually labeled key frames, we are able to leverage more sophisticated interpolation strategies to maximize performance given a fixed budget. We validate the power of our framework on difficult, real-world data sets and we demonstrate an inherent trade-off between the mix of human and cloud computing used vs. the accuracy and cost of the labeling. We further introduce a novel, cost-based evaluation criteria that compares vision algorithms by the budget required to achieve an acceptable performance. We hope our findings will spur innovation in the creation of massive labeled video data sets and enable novel data-driven computer vision applications. (A preliminary version of this work appeared in ECCV 2010 by Vondrick et al.)
Text ReferenceCarl Vondrick, Donald Patterson, and Deva Ramanan. Efficiently scaling up crowdsourced video annotation - a set of best practices for high quality, economical video labeling. International Journal of Computer Vision, 101(1):184–204, 2013.
author = "Vondrick, Carl and Patterson, Donald and Ramanan, Deva",
title = "Efficiently Scaling up Crowdsourced Video Annotation - A Set of Best Practices for High Quality, Economical Video Labeling",
journal = "International Journal of Computer Vision",
volume = "101",
number = "1",
year = "2013",
pages = "184-204"